JAPANESE
CONTACT

LTE based technologies in the world

LTE based technologies are now spreading well. Your smart phone easily gets LTE signals in almost all countries in the world. Though LTE bands vary depending on local carriers in a country, you can use data communication function without any problems as far as your smart phone supports the appropriate LTE band. According to the Ericsson Mobility Report in 2017, total mobile subscriptions number is 8 billion now and 3 billion of which are LTE based technology. It also estimates that mobile subscription number will reach 9.1 billion in 2023 with 5 billion LTE subscriptions. Regarding my case, I privately use an MVNO sim in Japan, Telkomsel simPATI in Asian countries, and Orange mobicarte-sim in Europe and North America since they offer affordable data roaming fees comparing with Japanese Mobile Operators.

LTE

LTE based technologies were developed by 3GPP. By limiting radio bandwidths to 200kHz and giving enough connections for IoT devices, NB-IoT standard was developing. By applying unlicensed band such as 5GHz, MulteFire specifications were developed. Well-established LTE based technologies are now applied for various radio frequencies associated with an appropriate bandwidth. This softens the devise development barrier and a rapid market creation is expected.

 

MulteFire specfications were developed by MulteFire Alliance based on 3GPP release 13 in February 2017. In 3GPP standards, PLMN(Public Land Mobile Network) has AAA functions. In MulteFire specifications, they define PSP(Participated Service Provider) and NHN(Neutral Home Network) and reuse 3GPP standards by mapping terms between  PLMN and PSP/NHN.

 

Addition to 3GPP release 13 standards by MultiFire Alliance is very limited. The addition includes the use of IETF EAP(Extended Authentication Protocol) for mutual authentication between UE and PSP and an online singup service (OSU-service). You can download MultiFire specifications from MulteFire Alliance Homepage, https://www.multefire.org/

 

Some sources announced that 5G services will be launched in 2020. However, LTE based technologies will be dominant for the time being and many systems and networks will be based on LTE based technologies.

 

Nobuo FUJII was working for NTT R&D and NTT Groups where he studied and developed transport network operation systems. He also worked for ITU-T and other standard organizations, fora and consortia so as to develop operation system architectures and interfaces. He is an IEICE fellow. He joined CCI in 2014.


Interoperable IoT foreseeing progress in HyperCat

Searching sensor and actuator interfaces on Webs, not a few industry standards are identified. Many of them are for manufacturing or factory automations. On the other hand, studies on IoT (Internet of Things) are in progress. It is possible to develop new sensors and actuators for IoT. However considering that the effective use of well populated sensors and actuators in markets, it is more practical to develop inter-operability of IoT not on a device level.

As many use cases have been developed considering the effective use of IoT technologies, such as smart cities, systems are converged to a three layer model which includes IoT devices, IoT gateways and IoT cloud. Interfaces are defined between layers and level of abstraction of IoT increases as going away from IoT devices. For instance, IoT devices are defined as piece of information on IoT cloud. When a use case allows a latency of information exchange between application and IoT devices, inter-operability of IoT should be developed on IoT cloud level. And when a use case does not allow latency, such IoT device should be owned by the use case.

Inter-operability of IoT is developed by defining an entity corresponding to IoT devices on an information system. This entity is also recognized as an object and very similar to managed objects used for network operations and management. Given not a few classes of IoT will exist, these object definitions should be machine readable and well manipulated by applications.

As a mechanism to meet above mentioned requirements, HyperCat project is progressing in UK, in which objects are defined in JSON notations following Restful architectural style. HyperCat project should be cautiously monitored.

 

Nobuo FUJII was working for NTT R&D and NTT Groups where he studied and developed transport network operation systems. He also worked for ITU-T and other standard organizations, fora and consortia so as to develop operation system architectures and interfaces. He is an IEICE fellow. He joined CCI in 2014.


Standardization of Internet of Things (2) Recent Trends


Standardization of Internet of Things (1) Recent Trends